Research Article
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Socıal Self Perceptıon And Its Results Created By Age Dıscrımınatıon In Elderly Indıvıduals Durıng The Pandemıc Process

Year 2021, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 161 - 174, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.48066/kusob.971392

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to examine the levels of age discrimination and social self-presentation that individuals over the age of 65 experience during the Covid-19 pandemic process. The research was designed in a qualitative design. For this purpose, thematic contents were created that can help the elderly develop positive self-esteem and increase their social self-presentation skills according to the qualitative dimension. The answers given by the participants were compiled and content analysis was made and discussed with a phenomenological approach. According to the results of the research, participants over the age of 65 stated that they were exposed to age discrimination and social exclusion during the Covid-19 process. Again, according to the results of the research, elderly individuals do not use telephone, internet etc. with their family members and relatives. They presented their social identities by using communication tools, and in this context, they experienced feelings such as being appreciated, feeling valuable, and being respected.

References

  • WHO (2020). WHO characterizes COVID-19 as a pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
  • Özcan, H., Elkoca, A. & Yalçın, Ö. (2020). COVID-19 enfeksiyonu ve gebelik üzerindeki etkileri. Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences, 25 (Supplement 1), 43-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.21673/anadoluklin.708151.
  • White, K. & Banda, M. (2009). The role of civil society in pandemic preparedness. Andrew F. Cooper (Eds.), Innovation in Global Health Governance: Critical Cases (ss. 105-127). Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Zachreson, C., Kristopher M. F.,Cliff, O. M., Harding, N., Piraveenan, M. & Prokopenko, M. (2018). Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model. Science Advances (4)12, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau5294
  • Spinney, L. (2019). How pandemics shape social evolution. Nature (574), 324-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-03048-8.
  • Abumere F.A. (2019). A political conception of pandemics and epidemics in Africa. G. B. Tangwa, A. Abayomi, S. Ujewe & N. Munung (Eds). Socio-cultural Dimensions of
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases in Africa (ss. 125-134). Springer.
  • Maw, R. (2006). The AIDS pandemic: impact on science and society. Clinical Medicine Journal (6), 504-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.6-5-504a.
  • Stephens, J. (2005). The AIDS pandemic: Impact on science and society. Emerging Infectious Diseases (11). 1807-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050897.
  • Choonara, J. (2020). Socialism in a time of pandemics. International Socialism (2), 3-35.
  • Singh, I., Chand, K., Singh, A. & Kandadi, K. (2020). Time for a culture change: understanding and reducing risk, morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in those of black and minorityethnicity. British Journal of Hospital Medicine (81), 1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2020.0241
  • Tabish, S. A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: the crisis and the longer-term perspectives. Journal of Cardiology & Current Research 13(2), 41-44. http://https://www.researchgate.net/deref/https%3A%2F%2Fdoi.org%2F10.15406%2Fjccr.2020.13.00472.
  • Çevik M., Bamford C. G. G. & Ho A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic-a focused review for clinicians. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 81(5), 1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.023
  • Auzan, A. A. (2020). The economy under the pandemic and afterwards. Population and Economics 4(2), 4-12. https://dx.doi.org/10.3897/popecon.4.e53403
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı (2020). 65 Yaş ve Üstü ile Kronik Rahatsızlığı Olanlara Sokağa Çıkma Yasağı Ek Genelgesi.
  • Vago, S. (2003). Social change (5. Baskı). Prentice Hall.
  • Sullivan, L. E. (2009). The Sage glossary of the social and behavioral sciences. Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412972024.
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  • Creswell, J. W., ve Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (4. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Creswell, J. W., ve Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
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  • Morse, J. M. (2015). “Data Were Saturated . . . ”. Qualitative Health Research, 25(5), 587–588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315576699
  • Silverman, D., ve Marvasti, A. (2008). Doing Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Guide. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. London: State University of New York Press.
  • Polkinghorne, D. E. (1989). Phenomenological Research Method. Içinde R. S. Valle & S. Halling (Ed.), Existential-Phenomenological Perspectives in Psychology: Exploring the
  • Breadth of Human Experience (ss. 41–60). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Denzin, N. K., ve Lincoln, Y. S. (2018). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Grbich, C. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Introduction (2. baskı). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Lewins, A., ve Silver, C. (2007). Using Software in Qualitative Research: A Step-by-Step Guide. London: SAGE Publications.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice (4. baskı). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Corbin, J. M., ve Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE
  • Publications. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230153
  • Flick, U. (2014). An Introduction to Qualitative Research (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., ve Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Method Sourcebook (3. baskı). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
  • Butler RN (1969). Ageism: Another Form Of Bigotry. The Gerontologist, 9(4 Part 1): 243-6.
  • Gethıng L, Fethney J, Mckee K, Persson LO, Goff M, Churchward M, Matthews S, Halvarsson M, Johannsson I (2004) Validation Of The Reactions To Ageing Questionnaire:
  • Assessing Similarities Across Several Countries. J Gerontol Nurs.,30:47-54.
  • Mcguıre Sl, Kleın Da, Chen Sl (2008). Ageism Revisited: A Study Measuring Ageism İn East Tennessee, Usa. Nursing & Health Sciences. 10 (1): 11-6.
  • Vefıkuluçay D (2008). Üniversitede Öğrenim Gören Öğrencilerin Yaşlı Ayrımcılığına İlişkin Tutumları. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Sum S, Emamıan S, Sefıdchıan A (2016). Aging Educational Program To Reduce Ageism: İntergenerational Approach. Elderly Health Journal. 2 (1): 33-38.
  • Klein DA, Council KJ, Mcguire SL (2005). Education To Promote Positive Attitudes About Aging. Educational Gerontology, 31(8): 591-601.
  • Buz S (2015). Yaşlı Bireylere Yönelik Yaş Ayrımcılığı, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 14 (53): 268-278.
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  • Gıles H, Fox S, Harwood J, Wıllıams A (1994) Talking Age And Aging Talk: Communicating Through The Life Span. In Hummert M, Wiemann J, Nussbaum J Editors; Interpersonal Communication İn Older Adulthood: Interdisciplinary Theory And Research. Sage, New York.
  • Oğuzhanoğlu Nk, Özdel O (2005). Yaşlilik, Huzurevi Ve Yaşam Yolculuklari: Bir Psikodrama Grup Çalişmasi [The Elderly, Nursing Homes And Life Voyages: A Psychodrama Group Study]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16(2), 124–132.
  • Robıns Rw, Trzesnıewskı Kh (2005). Self-Esteem Development Across The Lifespan. Current Directions İn Psychological Science, 14: 158–162.
  • Robıns Rw, Trzesniewskı Kh, Tracy Jl (2002). Global Self-Esteem Across The Life Span. Psychology And Aging, 17: 423–434. Şahin Em, Yalçın Bm (2003). Huzurevinde Ve Kendi Evlerinde Yaşayan Yaşlılarda Depresyon Sıklıklarının Karşılaştırılması. Geriatri, 6 (1): 10-13.
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PANDEMİ SÜRECİNDE YAŞ AYRIMCILIĞININ YAŞLI BİREYLERDE YARATTIĞI SOSYAL BENLİK ALGISI VE SONUÇLARI

Year 2021, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 161 - 174, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.48066/kusob.971392

Abstract

Bu araştırmanın amacı Covid-19 pandemi sürecinde 65 yaş üstü bireylerin mahruz kaldıkları yaş ayrımcılığı ve sosyal benlik sunumu düzeylerini incelemektir. Araştırma, nitel desende tasarlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda nitel boyuta göre yaşlıların olumlu benlik saygısı geliştirmeleri ve sosyal benlik sunumu becerilerinin artmasına yardımcı olabilecek tematik içerikler oluşturulmuştur. Katılımcıların verdikleri cevaplar derlenerek içerik analizi yapılmış, fenomenolojik yaklaşımla ele alınmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre Covid-19 sürecinde 65 yaş üzeri katılımcılar yaş ayrımcılığına ve toplumsal dışlanmaya mahruz kaldıklarını dile getirmişlerdir. Yine araştırma sonuçlarına göre yaşlı bireyler aile bireyleri ve yakınlarıyla telefon, internet vb. iletişim araçlarını kullanarak sosyal benliklerini sunmuş, bu bağlamda takdir görme, değerli olduğunu hissetme, saygı görme gibi duyguları yaşamışlardır.

References

  • WHO (2020). WHO characterizes COVID-19 as a pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen
  • Özcan, H., Elkoca, A. & Yalçın, Ö. (2020). COVID-19 enfeksiyonu ve gebelik üzerindeki etkileri. Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences, 25 (Supplement 1), 43-50. https://dx.doi.org/10.21673/anadoluklin.708151.
  • White, K. & Banda, M. (2009). The role of civil society in pandemic preparedness. Andrew F. Cooper (Eds.), Innovation in Global Health Governance: Critical Cases (ss. 105-127). Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Zachreson, C., Kristopher M. F.,Cliff, O. M., Harding, N., Piraveenan, M. & Prokopenko, M. (2018). Urbanization affects peak timing, prevalence, and bimodality of influenza pandemics in Australia: Results of a census-calibrated model. Science Advances (4)12, 1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau5294
  • Spinney, L. (2019). How pandemics shape social evolution. Nature (574), 324-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-03048-8.
  • Abumere F.A. (2019). A political conception of pandemics and epidemics in Africa. G. B. Tangwa, A. Abayomi, S. Ujewe & N. Munung (Eds). Socio-cultural Dimensions of
  • Emerging Infectious Diseases in Africa (ss. 125-134). Springer.
  • Maw, R. (2006). The AIDS pandemic: impact on science and society. Clinical Medicine Journal (6), 504-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.6-5-504a.
  • Stephens, J. (2005). The AIDS pandemic: Impact on science and society. Emerging Infectious Diseases (11). 1807-1808. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1111.050897.
  • Choonara, J. (2020). Socialism in a time of pandemics. International Socialism (2), 3-35.
  • Singh, I., Chand, K., Singh, A. & Kandadi, K. (2020). Time for a culture change: understanding and reducing risk, morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in those of black and minorityethnicity. British Journal of Hospital Medicine (81), 1-4. https://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2020.0241
  • Tabish, S. A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: the crisis and the longer-term perspectives. Journal of Cardiology & Current Research 13(2), 41-44. http://https://www.researchgate.net/deref/https%3A%2F%2Fdoi.org%2F10.15406%2Fjccr.2020.13.00472.
  • Çevik M., Bamford C. G. G. & Ho A. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic-a focused review for clinicians. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 81(5), 1-6. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.023
  • Auzan, A. A. (2020). The economy under the pandemic and afterwards. Population and Economics 4(2), 4-12. https://dx.doi.org/10.3897/popecon.4.e53403
  • İçişleri Bakanlığı (2020). 65 Yaş ve Üstü ile Kronik Rahatsızlığı Olanlara Sokağa Çıkma Yasağı Ek Genelgesi.
  • Vago, S. (2003). Social change (5. Baskı). Prentice Hall.
  • Sullivan, L. E. (2009). The Sage glossary of the social and behavioral sciences. Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412972024.
  • Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., ve DeVault, M. (2016). Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: A Guidebook and Resource (4. baskı). Los Angeles: Wiley.
  • Yin, R. K. (2016). Qualitative Research from Start to Finish (2. baskı). New York: Guilford Publications.
  • Merriam, S. B., ve Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (4. baskı). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological Research Methods. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
  • Yıldırım, A., ve Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri (10. baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Creswell, J. W., ve Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (4. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Creswell, J. W., ve Creswell, J. D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Morse, J. M. (1995). The Significance of Saturation. Qualitative Health Research, 5(2), 147–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973239500500201
  • Morse, J. M. (2015). “Data Were Saturated . . . ”. Qualitative Health Research, 25(5), 587–588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732315576699
  • Silverman, D., ve Marvasti, A. (2008). Doing Qualitative Research: A Comprehensive Guide. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. London: State University of New York Press.
  • Polkinghorne, D. E. (1989). Phenomenological Research Method. Içinde R. S. Valle & S. Halling (Ed.), Existential-Phenomenological Perspectives in Psychology: Exploring the
  • Breadth of Human Experience (ss. 41–60). New York: Plenum Press.
  • Denzin, N. K., ve Lincoln, Y. S. (2018). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Grbich, C. (2012). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Introduction (2. baskı). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Lewins, A., ve Silver, C. (2007). Using Software in Qualitative Research: A Step-by-Step Guide. London: SAGE Publications.
  • Patton, M. Q. (2014). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice (4. baskı). London: SAGE Publications.
  • Corbin, J. M., ve Strauss, A. L. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE
  • Publications. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452230153
  • Flick, U. (2014). An Introduction to Qualitative Research (5. baskı). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
  • Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., ve Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Method Sourcebook (3. baskı). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
  • Butler RN (1969). Ageism: Another Form Of Bigotry. The Gerontologist, 9(4 Part 1): 243-6.
  • Gethıng L, Fethney J, Mckee K, Persson LO, Goff M, Churchward M, Matthews S, Halvarsson M, Johannsson I (2004) Validation Of The Reactions To Ageing Questionnaire:
  • Assessing Similarities Across Several Countries. J Gerontol Nurs.,30:47-54.
  • Mcguıre Sl, Kleın Da, Chen Sl (2008). Ageism Revisited: A Study Measuring Ageism İn East Tennessee, Usa. Nursing & Health Sciences. 10 (1): 11-6.
  • Vefıkuluçay D (2008). Üniversitede Öğrenim Gören Öğrencilerin Yaşlı Ayrımcılığına İlişkin Tutumları. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
  • Sum S, Emamıan S, Sefıdchıan A (2016). Aging Educational Program To Reduce Ageism: İntergenerational Approach. Elderly Health Journal. 2 (1): 33-38.
  • Klein DA, Council KJ, Mcguire SL (2005). Education To Promote Positive Attitudes About Aging. Educational Gerontology, 31(8): 591-601.
  • Buz S (2015). Yaşlı Bireylere Yönelik Yaş Ayrımcılığı, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 14 (53): 268-278.
  • Blau ZS (1973) Old Age İn A Changing Society. New View Point, New York.
  • Akdemir N, Çınar Fİ, Görgülü Ü (2007). Yaşlıların Algılanması Ve Yaşlı Ayrımcılığı. Turkish Journal Of Geriatrics, 10(4):215-22.
  • Çilingiroğlu N, Demirel S (2004). Yaşlılık Ve Yaşlı Ayırımcılığı. Türk Geriatri Dergisi, 7 (4), 225–230.
  • Erdemir F (2002). Sağlıklı Yaşlı Ve Yaşlılıkta Yaşam Kalitesinin Önemi. I. Ulusal Geriatri Kongresi Kongre Kitabı,, Türk Geriatri Vakfı, 30 Ekim- 3 Kasım 112-116.
  • Imamoğlu Eo, Imamoğlu V (1992). Life Situations And Attitudes Of The Turkish Elderly Toward İnstitutional Living Within A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal Of Gerontology, 47:102-108.
  • Rodın J, Langer E (1980). The Decline Of Control And The Fall Of Self-Esteem. Journal Of Social Issues, 36: 12–29.
  • Gıles H, Fox S, Harwood J, Wıllıams A (1994) Talking Age And Aging Talk: Communicating Through The Life Span. In Hummert M, Wiemann J, Nussbaum J Editors; Interpersonal Communication İn Older Adulthood: Interdisciplinary Theory And Research. Sage, New York.
  • Oğuzhanoğlu Nk, Özdel O (2005). Yaşlilik, Huzurevi Ve Yaşam Yolculuklari: Bir Psikodrama Grup Çalişmasi [The Elderly, Nursing Homes And Life Voyages: A Psychodrama Group Study]. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 16(2), 124–132.
  • Robıns Rw, Trzesnıewskı Kh (2005). Self-Esteem Development Across The Lifespan. Current Directions İn Psychological Science, 14: 158–162.
  • Robıns Rw, Trzesniewskı Kh, Tracy Jl (2002). Global Self-Esteem Across The Life Span. Psychology And Aging, 17: 423–434. Şahin Em, Yalçın Bm (2003). Huzurevinde Ve Kendi Evlerinde Yaşayan Yaşlılarda Depresyon Sıklıklarının Karşılaştırılması. Geriatri, 6 (1): 10-13.
  • Rıchmond Lj, Guındon Mh (2010). Self-Esteem İn The Third Phase Of Life. In M. H. Guiden (Ed.), Self-Esteem Across The Lifespan (Pp. 281-293). New York, Ny: Taylor And Francis Group.
  • Huycke S (2014) The Effect Of Magic As A Therapeutic Recreation Intervention On The Self-Esteem And Depression Of Older Adults İn Long-Term Care Facilities. Unpublished Master Thesis, The University Of North.
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Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Araştırma Makaleleri
Authors

Gizem DERAN 0000-0002-0046-1638

Ali ESGİN 0000-0002-0046-1638

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021Volume: 5 Issue: 2

Cite

APA DERAN, G., & ESGİN, A. (2021). PANDEMİ SÜRECİNDE YAŞ AYRIMCILIĞININ YAŞLI BİREYLERDE YARATTIĞI SOSYAL BENLİK ALGISI VE SONUÇLARI. Kuram Ve Uygulamada Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 5(2), 161-174. https://doi.org/10.48066/kusob.971392